Transient Processes in Cell Proliferation Kinetics

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An introduction to flow cytometric analysis, Part I: Cell proliferation analysis

It recrystallises rapidly after deformation at room temperature and, thus, cannot be work-hardened at room temperature. Creep resistance and recrystallisation temperature may be increased through alloying. Most of this wealth of information has been systematically and critically reviewed. The electrochemical properties of zinc are of most importance in its production and applications. For instance, electrowinning in zinc refining, electroplating in the production of zinc coatings, zinc batteries for energy storage, and zinc anodes for corrosion protection are all based essentially on zinc electrochemical properties.

Despite its extensive use in galvanised steels, 6 few studies have been reported in neutral solutions, particularly in deaerated media.

However, there are several species e. They furnished unambiguous evidence that such reduction leads to the formation of aggressive chloride ions. The formation of a thicker less protective exterior layer and a thinner interior one in absence of O 2 is consistent with the nucleation and growth of pitting corrosion products.

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Kinetic parameters were derived for passive layer growth, pit nucleation and its growth. The phenomenon of passivity, the electrochemistry of passivation, the models for pit initiation leading to passive film breakdown, and the kinetics of pit growth can be found in a number of sources. The working electrode was a disk made from a zinc rod Aldrich, At the beginning of each electrochemical experiment, the electrode was polished with grade emery paper under running water conditions and then thoroughly rinsed with purified water and dried with absorbent paper.

A platinum sheet of 2 cm 2 geometric area was used as counter electrode and a saturated calomel electrode as reference, to which all potentials are referred. To avoid contamination with Cl - ions, the reference electrode was connected to the working electrode through a bridge filled with the solution under test, the top of the bridge being pressed against the electrode surface to minimise the IR drop of the solution.

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The electrolyte solutions 0. The solutions were deaerated with N 2 before each experiment, and during the experiments N 2 was passed over the non-stirred solutions. Tests for Cl - ions in the ClO 4 - solutions revealed the absence of chloride ions after each experimental run. The potentiostatic current-time transients were recorded by polarising potentiodynamically the working electrode from the starting potential of mV vs.

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SCE at which the current transients were recorded for 2 min. Each experiment was performed with a freshly prepared solution and a newly polished set of electrodes. Figure 1 shows a potentiodynamic current-potential curve for stationary zinc electrode in deaerated 0.


Its inspection reveals an active-passive transition prior to a certain critical breakdown potential, which is shown to be mV vs. This value shifts to more anodic values when the potential is changed at higher scan rates, which explains why the potential window attained E a values as high as mV vs.

SEM observations Figure 2 confirmed the different nature of the zinc surface, from its pretreated situation A to its anodic polarisation showing passivity B , starting of pit nucleation C , and growth of pits D. The potentiostatic current-time transients for Zn in KClO 4 solutions with concentrations ranging from 0. The decrease in the transient current, i , is related to the growth of a ZnO layer on the electrode surface.

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The value of n represents the ZnO growth rate 22 and is given by the slope of the descending part of the log i - log t relationship Figure 3B. The data given in Table 1 show that the values of n decrease with increasing electrolyte concentration [KClO 4 ]. This aggressiveness of the ClO 4 - species, already discussed in the Introduction section, is well reported in the literature.

Considering that chemical analysis did not detect any traces of Cl - after each experimental run, it can be assumed that reaction 1 , although very aggressive towards the ZnO passive layer, is kinetically hindered. At concentrations higher than about 0. At moderate and higher concentrations passive layer growth occurs followed by a current increase that indicates pitting nucleation and growth. After t i , the current transient exhibits two straight lines with two different slopes. The first straight line may be considered to correspond to the period of pit nucleation, while the second line to that of pit growth.

Pdf Transient Processes In Cell Proliferation Kinetics

The slopes of the log i - log t curves after t i b 1 for the first line and b 2 for the second line as well as the pit nucleation rate t i -1 and i m for various KClO 4 concentrations are given in Table 1. The values of b 1 are nearly constant, while those of b 2 , t i -1 and i m increase with increasing perchlorate concentration. Moreover, current-time transient curves were recorded at various potential limits E a for a given electrolyte concentration. Figure 4 represents some transients on linear a and logarithmic b scales for Zn in 0.

For anodic potentials in the lower limits of the passive region, the rapid decrease of i to a steady value means that only the ZnO film is formed. For anodic potentials higher than about mV vs. SCE, ZnO growth as well as pit nucleation and growth occur.

Pdf Transient Processes In Cell Proliferation Kinetics

Table 2 lists the values of n, b 1 , b 2 , t i -1 and i m for the different anodic potentials used to obtain the results given in Figure 4. The values of n decrease with increasing applied potential, the values of b 1 are nearly constant, while those of b 2 , t i -1 and i m enhance with the potential limit E a. The corrosion behaviour of Zn in KClO 4 solutions was studied by current-time transient measurements.

Zinc passivation is due to the formation of a ZnO layer on the electrode surface. As in any other domain of science, mathematical theory of cell systems has its own intrinsic logic of development which, however, depends in large measure on the progress in experimental biology.

Thus, during a fairly long period running into decades activities in that sphere were centered on devising its own specific approaches necessitated by new objectives in the experimental in vivo and in vitro investigation of cell population kinetics in different tissues. Read more Read less.

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